UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

 

 

 

FORM 8-K

 

CURRENT REPORT

Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of
the Securities Exchange Act of 1934

 

Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): November 2, 2017

 

Spark Networks, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   001-32750   20-8901733
(State or Other Jurisdiction
of Incorporation)
  (Commission
File Number)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

 

11150 Santa Monica Boulevard, Suite 600
Los Angeles, California 90025

(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)

 

(310) 893-0550

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Not Applicable

(Former name or former address, if changed since last report.)

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions (see General Instruction A.2. below):

 

¨Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

 

¨Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

 

¨Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

 

¨Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§ 230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§ 240.12b-2 of this chapter).

 

Emerging growth company  ¨

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2.01Completion of Acquisition or Disposition of Assets.

 

On November 2, 2017, pursuant to the terms of an Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of May 2, 2017 (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among Spark Networks, Inc. (the “Company”), Affinitas GmbH, Spark Networks SE (f/k/a Blitz 17-655 SE) (“New Spark”), and Chardonnay Merger Sub, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of New Spark (“Merger Sub”), New Spark completed its acquisition of the Company through the merger of Merger Sub with and into the Company (the “Merger”), with the Company continuing as the surviving corporation in the Merger and becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of New Spark.

 

At the effective time of the Merger (the “Effective Time”), each share of common stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”), of the Company was exchanged for the right to receive 0.1 American Depositary shares of New Spark (“New Spark ADSs”), with each New Spark ADS representing 0.1 ordinary shares of New Spark (the “Merger Consideration”). In addition, at the Effective Time, option awards were converted into corresponding awards that are subject to New Spark ordinary shares.

 

The foregoing description of the effects of the Merger and the Merger Agreement, and the transactions contemplated thereby, does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, the full text of the Merger Agreement. A copy of the Merger Agreement was attached as Exhibit 2.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on May 3, 2017, and is attached as Exhibit 2.1 hereto and incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 3.01Notice of Delisting or Failure to Satisfy a Continued Listing Rule or Standard; Transfer of Listing.

 

The information set forth under Item 2.01 is incorporated herein by reference.

 

In connection with the closing of the Merger, the Company notified the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) on November 2, 2017 that each outstanding share of Common Stock was converted pursuant to the Merger Agreement as set forth under Item 2.01. The Company requested that NYSE delist its Common Stock on November 2, 2017 and, as a result, trading of the Common Stock on NYSE was suspended prior to the opening of NYSE on November 3, 2017. The Company also requested that NYSE file a Form 25 with the SEC to remove the Common Stock from listing on NYSE and to deregister the Common Stock pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which Form 25 was filed by the NYSE on November 3, 2017.

 

Additionally, the Company intends to file with the SEC a Form 15 requesting the termination of registration of the Common Stock under Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and the suspension of the Company’s reporting obligations under Section 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

 

Item 3.03Material Modification to Rights of Security Holders.

 

The information set forth under Item 2.01 is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Pursuant to the Merger Agreement and in connection with the consummation of the Merger, each outstanding share of Common Stock was converted into the right to receive the Merger Consideration.

 

Item 5.01Changes in Control of Registrant.

 

The information set forth under Item 2.01 is incorporated herein by reference.

 

As a result of the Merger, a change in control of the Company occurred and the Company became a wholly-owned subsidiary of New Spark with former Affinitas GmbH stockholders owning approximately 75% of the combined company and former Spark stockholders owning approximately 25%.

 

 

 

 

Item 5.02       Departure of Directors or Certain Officers; Election of Directors; Appointment of Certain Officers; Compensatory Arrangements of Certain Officers.

 

Directors

 

Upon completion of the Merger, Herbert Sablotny and Michael Schrezenmaier, who constituted the Board of Directors of Merger Sub, became the directors of the Company, and each of the seven directors of the Company immediately prior to the Effective Time (Michael J. McConnell, Michael B. Brodsky, Bradley J. Goldberg, Ian V. Jacobs, John H. Lewis, Walter L. Turek and Daniel M Rosenthal) are no longer directors of the Company.

 

Officers

 

Upon completion of the Merger, each of the existing officers of the Company were removed and the executive officers of Merger Sub immediately prior to the Effective Time, which consisted of Michael Schrezenmaier, Vice President and Secretary, became the executive officer of the Surviving Corporation as of immediately after the Effective Time. The biography of Mr. Schrezenmaier included under “New Spark’s Business─New Spark Managing Directors (geschäftsführende Direktoren) and Executive Officers” in the proxy statement/prospectus which forms part of the Registration Statement on Form F-4 filed with the SEC on August 16, 2017, as amended, is incorporated herein by reference.

 

Item 5.03Amendment to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.

 

In connection with the consummation of the Merger, the Company’s certificate of incorporation and bylaws were amended and restated to be the certificate of incorporation and the bylaws, respectively, of Merger Sub in effect immediately prior to the Effective Time.

 

The certificate of incorporation and bylaws as so amended and restated are attached hereto as Exhibit 3.1 and Exhibit 3.2, respectively, and are incorporated by reference herein.

 

Item 9.01.Financial Statements and Exhibits.

 

(c)Exhibits.

 

Exhibit No.   Description  
2.1  Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of May 2, 2017, by and among Spark Networks, Inc., Affinitas GmbH, Spark Networks SE (f/k/a Blitz 17-655 SE), and Chardonnay Merger Sub, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 3, 2017)
    
3.1  Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation
    
3.2  Amended and Restated Bylaws

 

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

 

  SPARK NETWORKS, INC.
         
         
Date: November 8, 2017 By:   /s/ Michael Schrezenmaier  
  Name:  Michael Schrezenmaier  
  Title: Vice President and Secretary  

 

 

 


Exhibit Index

 

Exhibit No.   Description  
2.1  Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of May 2, 2017, by and among Spark Networks, Inc., Affinitas GmbH, Spark Networks SE (f/k/a Blitz 17-655 SE), and Chardonnay Merger Sub, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 3, 2017)
    
3.1  Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation
    
3.2  Amended and Restated Bylaws

 

 

 

Exhibit 3.1

 

SPARK NETWORKS, INC.

 

AMENDED AND RESTATED CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

 

ARTICLE I

 

The name of the corporation (which is hereinafter referred to as the “Corporation”) is: Spark Networks, Inc.

 

ARTICLE II

 

The address of the Corporation’s registered office in the State of Delaware is Corporation Trust Center, 1209 Orange Street, New Castle County, Wilmington, DE 19801. The name of the Corporation’s registered agent at such address is The Corporation Trust Company.

 

ARTICLE III

 

The purpose of the Corporation shall be to engage in any lawful act or activity for which corporations may be organized and incorporated under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

 

ARTICLE IV

 

Section 1. The Corporation shall be authorized to issue 100 shares of capital stock, of which 100 shares shall be shares of Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Common Stock”).

 

Section 2. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Common Stock shall have the exclusive right to vote for the election of directors and for all other purposes. Each share of Common Stock shall have one vote, and the Common Stock shall vote together as a single class.

 

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE V

 

Unless and except to the extent that the By-Laws of the Corporation shall so require, the election of directors of the Corporation need not be by written ballot.

 

ARTICLE VI

 

In furtherance and not in limitation of the powers conferred by law, the Board of Directors of the Corporation (the “Board”) is expressly authorized and empowered to make, alter and repeal the By-Laws of the Corporation by a majority vote at any regular or special meeting of the Board or by written consent, subject to the power of the stockholders of the Corporation to alter or repeal any By-Laws made by the Board.

 

ARTICLE VII

 

The Corporation reserves the right at any time from time to time to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision contained in this Certificate of Incorporation, and any other provisions authorized by the laws of the State of Delaware at the time in force may be added or inserted, in the manner now or hereafter prescribed by law; and all rights, preferences and privileges of whatsoever nature conferred upon stockholders, directors or any other persons whomsoever by and pursuant to this Certificate of Incorporation in its present form or as hereafter amended are granted subject to the right reserved in this Article.

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE VIII

 

Section 1. Elimination of Certain Liability of Directors. A director of the Corporation shall not be personally liable to the Corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except to the extent such exemption from liability or limitation thereof is not permitted under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware as the same exists or may hereafter be amended.

 

Any repeal or modification of the foregoing paragraph shall not adversely affect any right or protection of a director of the Corporation existing hereunder with respect to any act or omission occurring prior to such repeal or modification.

 

Section 2. Indemnification and Insurance.

 

(a) Right to Indemnification. Each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (hereinafter a “proceeding”), by reason of the fact that he or she, or a person of whom he or she is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer of the Corporation or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to employee benefit plans, whether the basis of such proceeding is alleged action in an official capacity as a director, officer, employee or agent or in any other capacity while serving as a director, officer, employee or agent, shall be indemnified and held harmless by the Corporation to the fullest extent authorized by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but, in the case of any such amendment, to the fullest extent permitted by law, only to the extent that such amendment permits the Corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than said law permitted the Corporation to provide prior to such amendment), against all expense, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines, amounts paid or to be paid in settlement, and excise taxes or penalties arising under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974) reasonably incurred or suffered by such person in connection therewith and such indemnification shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of his or her heirs, executors and administrators; provided, however, that, except as provided in paragraph (b) hereof, the Corporation shall indemnify any such person seeking indemnification in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person only if such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized by the Board. The right to indemnification conferred in this Section shall be a contract right and shall include the right to be paid by the Corporation the expenses incurred in defending any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition; provided, however, that, if the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware requires, the payment of such expenses incurred by a director or officer in his or her capacity as a director or officer (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is rendered by such person while a director or officer, including, without limitation, service to an employee benefit plan) in advance of the final disposition of a proceeding, shall be made only upon delivery to the Corporation of an undertaking, by or on behalf of such director or officer, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined that such director or officer is not entitled to be indemnified under this Section or otherwise. The Corporation may, by action of the Board, provide indemnification to employees and agents of the Corporation with the same scope and effect as the foregoing indemnification of directors and officers.

 

 

 

 

(b) Right of Claimant to Bring Suit. If a claim under paragraph (a) of this Section is not paid in full by the Corporation within thirty days after a written claim has been received by the Corporation, the claimant may at any time thereafter bring suit against the Corporation to recover the unpaid amount of the claim and, if successful in whole or in part, the claimant shall be entitled to be paid also the expense of prosecuting such claim. It shall be a defense to any such action (other than an action brought to enforce a claim for expenses incurred in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition where the required undertaking, if any is required, has been tendered to the Corporation) that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct which make it permissible under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware for the Corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed, but the burden of proving such defense shall be on the Corporation. Neither the failure of the Corporation (including its Board, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such action that indemnification of the claimant is proper in the circumstances because he or she has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, nor an actual determination by the Corporation (including its Board, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) that the claimant has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall be a defense to the action or create a presumption that the claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct.

 

(c) Non-Exclusivity of Rights. The right to indemnification and the payment of expenses incurred in defending a proceeding in advance of its final disposition conferred in this Section shall not be exclusive of any other right which any person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, By-Law, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

 

(d) Insurance. The Corporation may maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any such expense, liability or loss, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 3.2

 

 

AMENDED AND RESTATED BY-LAWS

 

OF

 

SPARK NETWORKS, INC.

 

A Delaware Corporation

 

AS OF NOVEMBER 2, 2017

 

ARTICLE I

 

OFFICES

 

Section 1 Registered Office. The registered office of the corporation in the State of Delaware shall be located at Corporation Trust Center, 1209 Orange Street, Wilmington Delaware 19801, in the County of New Castle. The name of the corporation’s registered agent at such address shall be The Corporation Trust Company. The registered office and/or registered agent of the corporation may be changed from time to time by action of the board of directors.

 

Section 2 Other Offices. The corporation may also have offices at such other places, both within and without the State of Delaware, as the board of directors may from time to time determine or the business of the corporation may require.

 

ARTICLE II

 

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

 

Section 1 Place and Time of Meetings. An annual meeting of the stockholders shall be held each year for the purpose of electing directors and conducting such other proper business as may come before the meeting. The date, time and place of the annual meeting may be determined by resolution of the board of directors or as set by the chief executive officer of the corporation.

 

Section 2 Special Meetings. Special meetings of stockholders may be called for any purpose (including, without limitation, the filling of board vacancies and newly created directorships), and may be held at such time and place, within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be stated in a notice of meeting or in a duly executed waiver of notice thereof. Such meetings may be called at any time by two or more members of the board of directors or the chief executive officer and shall be called by the chief executive officer upon the written request of holders of shares entitled to cast not less than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding shares of any series or class of the corporation’s Capital Stock.

 

Section 3 Place of Meetings. The board of directors may designate any place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as the place of meeting for any annual meeting or for any special meeting called by the board of directors. If no designation is made, or if a special meeting be otherwise called, the place of meeting shall be the principal executive office of the corporation.

 

1 

 

 

Section 4 Notice. Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take action at a meeting, written or printed notice stating the place, date, time, and, in the case of special meetings, the purpose or purposes, of such meeting, shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting. All such notices shall be delivered, either personally or by mail, by or at the direction of the board of directors, the chief executive officer or the secretary, and if mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, addressed to the stockholder at his, her or its address as the same appears on the records of the corporation. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

 

Section 5 Stockholders List. The officer having charge of the stock ledger of the corporation shall make, at least 10 days before every meeting of the stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting arranged in alphabetical order, showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least 10 days prior to the meeting, either at a place within the city where the meeting is to be held, which place shall be specified in the notice of the meeting or, if not so specified, at the place where the meeting is to be held. The list shall also be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be inspected by any stockholder who is present.

 

Section 6 Quorum. Except as otherwise provided by applicable law or by the Certificate of Incorporation, a majority of the outstanding shares of the corporation entitled to vote, represented in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at a meeting of stockholders. If less than a majority of the outstanding shares are represented at a meeting, a majority of the shares so represented may adjourn the meeting from time to time in accordance with Section 7 of this Article, until a quorum shall be present or represented.

 

Section 7 Adjourned Meetings. When a meeting is adjourned to another time and place, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place thereof are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting the corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than thirty days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

 

Section 8 Vote Required. When a quorum is present, the affirmative vote of the majority of shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders, unless the question is one upon which by express provisions of an applicable law or of the Certificate of Incorporation a different vote is required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of such question. Where a separate vote by class is required, the affirmative vote of the majority of shares of such class present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting shall be the act of such class.

 

2 

 

 

Section 9 Voting Rights. Except as otherwise provided by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or by the Certificate of Incorporation of the corporation or any amendments thereto and subject to Section 3 of Article VI hereof, every stockholder shall at every meeting of the stockholders be entitled to one vote in person or by proxy for each share of common stock held by such stockholder.

 

Section 10 Proxies. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders or to express consent or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize another person or persons to act for him, her or it by proxy. Every proxy must be signed by the stockholder granting the proxy or by his, her or its attorney-in-fact. No proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. A duly executed proxy shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable and if, and only as long as, it is coupled with an interest sufficient in law to support an irrevocable power. A proxy may be made irrevocable regardless of whether the interest with which it is coupled is an interest in the stock itself or an interest in the corporation generally.

 

Section 11 Action by Written Consent. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required to be taken at any annual or special meeting of stockholders of the corporation, or any action which may be taken at any annual or special meeting of such stockholders, may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken and bearing the dates of signature of the stockholders who signed the consent or consents, shall be signed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than a majority of the shares entitled to vote, or, if greater, not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled to vote thereon were present and voted and shall be delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in the state of Delaware, or the corporation’s principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book or books in which proceedings of meetings of the stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested provided, however, that no consent or consents delivered by certified or registered mail shall be deemed delivered until such consent or consents are actually received at the registered office. All consents properly delivered in accordance with this section shall be deemed to be recorded when so delivered. No written consent shall be effective to take the corporate action referred to therein unless, within sixty days of the earliest dated consent delivered to the corporation as required by this section, written consents signed by the holders of a sufficient number of shares to take such corporate action are so recorded. Prompt notice of the taking of the corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous written consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in writing. Any action taken pursuant to such written consent or consents of the stockholders shall have the same force and effect as if taken by the stockholders at a meeting thereof.

 

ARTICLE III

 

DIRECTORS

 

Section 1 General Powers. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the board of directors.

 

3 

 

 

Section 2 Number, Election and Term of Office. The number of directors which shall constitute the board as of the effective date of these by-laws shall be THREE (3). Thereafter, the number of directors shall be established from time to time by resolution of the board. The directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote in the election of directors. The directors shall be elected in this manner at the annual meeting of the stockholders, except as provided in Section 4 of this Article III. Each director elected shall hold office until a successor is duly elected and qualified or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal as hereinafter provided.

 

Section 3 Removal and Resignation. Any director or the entire board of directors may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Whenever the holders of any class or series are entitled to elect one or more directors by the provisions of the corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation, the provisions of this section shall apply, in respect to the removal without cause or a director or directors so elected, to the vote of the holders of the outstanding shares of that class or series and not to the vote of the outstanding shares as a whole. Any director may resign at any time upon written notice to the corporation.

 

Section 4 Vacancies. Except as otherwise provided by the Certificate of Incorporation of the corporation or any amendments thereto, vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors may be filled by a majority vote of the holders of the corporation’s outstanding stock entitled to vote thereon or by a majority of the members of the board of directors. Each director so chosen shall hold office until a successor is duly elected and qualified or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal as herein provided.

 

Section 5 Annual Meetings. The annual meeting of each newly elected board of directors shall be held without other notice than this by-law immediately after, and at the same place as, the annual meeting of stockholders.

 

Section 6 Other Meetings and Notice. Regular meetings, other than the annual meeting, of the board of directors may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by resolution of the board. Special meetings of the board of directors may be called by or at the request of the chief executive officer or president on at least 24 hours notice to each director, either personally, by telephone, by mail, or by telegraph; in like manner and on like notice the chief executive officer must call a special meeting on the written request of at least a majority of the directors.

 

Section 7 Quorum, Required Vote and Adjournment. A majority of the total number of directors then in office (without regard to any then vacancies on the board) shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The vote of a majority of directors present at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the board of directors. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the board of directors, the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

 

4 

 

 

Section 8 Committees. The board of directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the whole board, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the corporation, which to the extent provided in such resolution or these by-laws shall have and may exercise the powers of the board of directors in the management and affairs of the corporation except as otherwise limited by law. The board of directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. Such committee or committees shall have such name or names as may be determined from time to time by resolution adopted by the board of directors. Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the board of directors when required.

 

Section 9 Committee Rules. Each committee of the board of directors may fix its own rules of procedure and shall hold its meetings as provided by such rules, except as may otherwise be provided by a resolution of the board of directors designating such committee. Unless otherwise provided in such a resolution, the presence of at least a majority of the members of the committee shall be necessary to constitute a quorum. In the event that a member and that member’s alternate, if alternates are designated by the board of directors as provided in Section 8 of this Article III, of such committee is or are absent or disqualified, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the board of directors to act at the meeting in place of any such absent or disqualified member.

 

Section 10 Communications Equipment. Members of the board of directors or any committee thereof may participate in and act at any meeting of such board or committee through the use of a conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in the meeting pursuant to this section shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

 

Section 11 Waiver of Notice and Presumption of Assent. Any member of the board of directors or any committee thereof who is present at a meeting shall be conclusively presumed to have waived notice of such meeting except when such member attends for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Such member shall be conclusively presumed to have assented to any action taken unless his or her dissent shall be entered in the minutes of the meeting or unless his or her written dissent to such action shall be filed with the person acting as the secretary of the meeting before the adjournment thereof or shall be forwarded by registered mail to the secretary of the corporation immediately after the adjournment of the meeting. Such right to dissent shall not apply to any member who voted in favor of such action.

 

Section 12 Action by Written Consent. Unless otherwise restricted by the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the board of directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all the then members of the board or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing, and the writing or writings are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the board or committee.

 

5 

 

 

ARTICLE IV

 

OFFICERS

 

Section 1 Number. The officers of the corporation shall be elected by the board of directors and may consist of a chairman, a chief executive officer, a president, one or more vice presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, and such other officers and assistant officers as may be deemed necessary or desirable by the board of directors. Any number of offices may be held by the same person. In its discretion, the board of directors may choose not to fill any office for any period as it may deem advisable.

 

Section 2 Election and Term of Office. The officers of the corporation shall be elected annually by the board of directors at its first meeting held after each annual meeting of stockholders or as soon thereafter as conveniently may be. Vacancies may be filled or new offices created and filled at any meeting of the board of directors. Each officer shall hold office until a successor is duly elected and qualified or until his or her earlier death, resignation or removal as hereinafter provided.

 

Section 3 Removal. Any officer or agent elected by the board of directors may be removed by the board of directors whenever in its judgment the best interests of the corporation would be served thereby, but such removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person so removed.

 

Section 4 Vacancies. Any vacancy occurring in any office because of death, resignation, removal, disqualification or otherwise, may be filled by the board of directors for the unexpired portion of the term by the board of directors then in office.

 

Section 5 Compensation. Compensation of all officers shall be fixed by the board of directors, and no officer shall be prevented from receiving such compensation by virtue of his or her also being a director of the corporation.

 

Section 6 The Chairman of the Board. The Chairman of the Board, if one shall have been elected, shall be a member of the board, may be an officer of the corporation, and, if present, shall preside at each meeting of the board of directors or shareholders. He shall advise the chief executive officer, and in the chief executive officer’s absence, other officers of the corporation, and shall perform such other duties as may from time to time be assigned to him by the board of directors.

 

Section 7 The Chief Executive Officer. In the absence of the Chairman of the Board or if a Chairman of the Board shall have not been elected, the chief executive officer shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and board of directors at which he or she is present; subject to the powers of the board of directors, shall have general charge of the business, affairs and property of the corporation, and control over its officers, agents and employees; and shall see that all orders and resolutions of the board of directors are carried into effect. The chief executive officer shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or as may be provided in these by-laws.

 

6 

 

 

Section 8 President; Vice Presidents. The president shall, in the absence or disability of the chief executive officer, act with all of the powers and be subject to all of the restrictions of the chief executive officer. The president shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors, the chief executive officer or these by-laws may, from time to time, prescribe. The vice-president, if any, or if there shall be more than one, the vice-presidents in the order determined by the board of directors shall, in the absence or disability of the president, act with all of the powers and be subject to all the restrictions of the president. The vice-presidents shall also perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors, the president or these by-laws may, from time to time, prescribe.

 

Section 9 The Secretary and Assistant Secretaries. The secretary shall attend all meetings of the board of directors, all meetings of the committees thereof and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings of the meetings in a book or books to be kept for that purpose. Under the chief executive officer’s supervision, the secretary shall give, or cause to be given, all notices required to be given by these by-laws or by law; shall have such powers and perform such duties as the board of directors, the chief executive officer or these by-laws may, from time to time, prescribe; and shall have custody of the corporate seal of the corporation. The secretary, or an assistant secretary, shall have authority to affix the corporate seal to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by his or her signature or by the signature of such assistant secretary. The board of directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the corporation and to attest the affixing by his or her signature. The assistant secretary, or if there be more than one, the assistant secretaries in the order determined by the board of directors, shall, in the absence or disability of the secretary, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors, the chief executive officer, or secretary may, from time to time, prescribe.

 

Section 10 The Treasurer and Assistant Treasurer. The treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities; shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the corporation; shall deposit all monies and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the corporation as may be ordered by the board of directors; shall cause the funds of the corporation to be disbursed when such disbursements have been duly authorized, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements; and shall render to the chief executive officer and the board of directors, at its regular meeting or when the board of directors so requires, an account of the corporation; shall have such powers and perform such duties as the board of directors, the chief executive officer or these by-laws may, from time to time, prescribe. If required by the board of directors, the treasurer shall give the corporation a bond (which shall be rendered every six years) in such sums and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the board of directors for the faithful performance of the duties of the office of treasurer and for the restoration to the corporation, in case of death, resignation, retirement, or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money, and other property of whatever kind in the possession or under the control of the treasurer belonging to the corporation. The assistant treasurer, or if there shall be more than one, the assistant treasurers in the order determined by the board of directors, shall in the absence or disability of the treasurer, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the treasurer. The assistant treasurers shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors, the chief executive officer, the president or treasurer may, from time to time, prescribe.

 

7 

 

 

Section 11 Other Officers, Assistant Officers and Agents. Officers, assistant officers and agents, if any, which officers may include officers of any division of the corporation, other than those whose duties are provided for in these by-laws, shall have such authority and perform such duties as may from time to time be prescribed by resolution of the board of directors.

 

Section 12 Absence or Disability of Officers. In the case of the absence or disability of any officer of the corporation and of any person hereby authorized to act in such officer’s place during such officer’s absence or disability, the board of directors may by resolution delegate the powers and duties of such officer to any other officer or to any director, or to any other person whom it may select.

 

ARTICLE V

 

INDEMNIFICATION OF OFFICERS, DIRECTORS AND OTHERS

 

Section 1 Nature of Indemnity. Each person who was or is made a party or is threatened to be made a party to or is involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (hereinafter a “proceeding”), by reason of the fact that he or a person of whom he is the legal representative, is or was a director or officer, of the corporation or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee, fiduciary, or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, including service with respect to employee benefit plans, whether the basis of such proceeding is alleged action in an official capacity as a director, officer, employee, fiduciary or agent or in any other capacity while serving as a director, officer, employee, fiduciary or agent, shall be indemnified and held harmless by the corporation to the fullest extent which it is empowered to do so by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as the same exists or may hereafter be amended (but, in the case of any such amendment, only to the extent that such amendment permits the corporation to provide broader indemnification rights than said law permitted the corporation to provide prior to such amendment) against all expense, liability and loss (including attorneys’ fees actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such proceeding and such indemnification shall inure to the benefit of his or her heirs, executors and administrators; provided, however, that, except as provided in Section 2 hereof, the corporation shall indemnify any such person seeking indemnification in connection with a proceeding initiated by such person only if such proceeding was authorized by the board of directors of the corporation. The right to indemnification conferred in this Article V shall be a contract right and, subject to Sections 2 and 5 hereof, shall include the right to be paid by the corporation the expenses incurred in defending any such proceeding in advance of its final disposition. The corporation may, by action of its board of directors, provide indemnification to employees and agents of the corporation with the same scope and effect as the foregoing indemnification of directors and officers.

 

8 

 

 

 

Section 2 Procedure for Indemnification of Directors and Officers. Any indemnification of a director or officer of the corporation under Section 1 of this Article V or advance of expenses under Section 5 of this Article V shall be made promptly, and in any event within 30 days, upon the written request of the director or officer. If a determination by the corporation that the director or officer is entitled to indemnification pursuant to this Article V is required, and the corporation fails to respond within sixty days to a written request for indemnity, the corporation shall be deemed to have approved the request. If the corporation denies a written request for indemnification or advancing of expenses, in whole or in part, or if payment in full pursuant to such request is not made within 30 days, the right to indemnification or advances as granted by this Article V shall be enforceable by the director or officer in any court of competent jurisdiction. Such person’s costs and expenses incurred in connection with successfully establishing his or her right to indemnification, in whole or in part, in any such action shall also be indemnified by the corporation. It shall be a defense to any such action (other than an action brought to enforce a claim for expenses incurred in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition where the required undertaking, if any, has been tendered to the corporation) that the claimant has not met the standards of conduct which make it permissible under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware for the corporation to indemnify the claimant for the amount claimed, but the burden of such defense shall be on the corporation. Neither the failure of the corporation (including its board of directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such action that indemnification of the claimant is proper in the circumstances because he or she has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, nor an actual determination by the corporation (including its board of directors, independent legal counsel, or its stockholders) that the claimant has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall be a defense to the action or create a presumption that the claimant has not met the applicable standard of conduct.

 

Section 3 Nonexclusivity of Article V. The rights to indemnification and the payment of expenses incurred in defending a proceeding in advance of its final disposition conferred in this Article V shall not be exclusive of any other right which any person may have or hereafter acquire under any statute, provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, by-law, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise.

 

Section 4 Insurance. The corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on its own behalf and on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee, fiduciary, or agent of the corporation or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under this Article V.

 

Section 5 Expenses. Expenses incurred by any person described in Section 1 of this Article V in defending a proceeding shall be paid by the corporation in advance of such proceeding’s final disposition unless otherwise determined by the board of directors in the specific case upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of the director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that he or she is not entitled to be indemnified by the corporation. Such expenses incurred by other employees and agents may be so paid upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the board of directors deems appropriate.

 

Section 6 Employees and Agents. Persons who are not covered by the foregoing provisions of this Article V and who are or were employees or agents of the corporation, or who are or were serving at the request of the corporation as employees or agents of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, may be indemnified to the extent authorized at any time or from time to time by the board of directors.

 

9 

 

 

Section 7 Contract Rights. The provisions of this Article V shall be deemed to be a contract right between the corporation and each director or officer who serves in any such capacity at any time while this Article V and the relevant provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or other applicable law are in effect, and any repeal or modification of this Article V or any such law shall not affect any rights or obligations then existing with respect to any state of facts or proceeding then existing.

 

Section 8 Merger or Consolidation. For purposes of this Article V, references to “the corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, and employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under this Article V with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as he or she would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued.

 

ARTICLE VI

 

CERTIFICATES OF STOCK

 

Section 1 Form. Shares of stock in the Corporation may be represented by certificates or may be issued in uncertificated form in accordance with the Delaware General Corporation Law, as amended. The issuance of shares in uncertificated form shall not affect shares already represented by a certificate until the certificate is surrendered to the corporation. There shall be no differences in the rights and obligations of stockholders based on whether or not their shares are represented by certificates. Every holder of stock in the corporation represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate, signed by, or in the name of the corporation by the chairman of the board, the chief executive officer, the president or a vice-president and the secretary or an assistant secretary of the corporation, certifying the number of shares owned by such holder in the corporation. If such a certificate is countersigned (1) by a transfer agent or an assistant transfer agent other than the corporation or its employee or (2) by a registrar, other than the corporation or its employee, the signature of any such chairman of the board, chief executive officer, president, vice-president, secretary, or assistant secretary may be facsimiles. In case any officer or officers who have signed, or whose facsimile signature or signatures have been used on, any such certificate or certificates shall cease to be such officer or officers of the corporation whether because of death, resignation or otherwise before such certificate or certificates have been delivered by the corporation, such certificate or certificates may nevertheless be issued and delivered as though the person or persons who signed such certificate or certificates or whose facsimile signature or signatures have been used thereon had not ceased to be such officer or officers of the corporation. All certificates for shares shall be consecutively numbered or otherwise identified. The name of the person to whom the shares represented thereby are issued, with the number of shares and date of issue, shall be entered on the books of the corporation. Shares of stock of the corporation shall only be transferred on the books of the corporation by the holder of record thereof or by such holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing, upon surrender to the corporation of the certificate or certificates for such shares endorsed by the appropriate person or persons, with such evidence of the authenticity of such endorsement, transfer, authorization, and other matters as the corporation may reasonably require, and accompanied by all necessary stock transfer stamps. In that event, it shall be the duty of the corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate or certificates, and record the transaction on its books. The board of directors may appoint a bank or trust company organized under the laws of the United States or any state thereof to act as its transfer agent or registrar, or both in connection with the transfer of any class or series of securities of the corporation.

 

10 

 

 

Section 2 Lost Certificates. The board of directors may direct a new certificate or uncertificated shares in place of any certificate or certificates previously issued by the corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen, or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen, or destroyed. When authorizing such issue of a new certificate or certificates, the board of directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen, or destroyed certificate or certificates, or his or her legal representative, to give the corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify the corporation against any claim that may be made against the corporation on account of the loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

 

Section 3 Fixing a Record Date for Stockholder Meetings. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the board of directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty nor less than ten days before the date of such meeting. If no record date is fixed by the board of directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be the close of business on the next day preceding the day on which notice is given, or if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the board of directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

 

Section 4 Fixing a Record Date for Action by Written Consent. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, the board of directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors, and which date shall not be more than ten days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors. If no record date has been fixed by the board of directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the board of directors is required by statute, shall be the first date on which a signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. If no record date has been fixed by the board of directors and prior action by the board of directors is required by statute, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be at the close of business on the day on which the board of directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.

 

11 

 

 

Section 5 Fixing a Record Date for Other Purposes. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment or any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purposes of any other lawful action, the board of directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the board of directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

 

Section 6 Subscriptions for Stock. Unless otherwise provided for in the subscription agreement, subscriptions for shares shall be paid in full at such time, or in such installments and at such times, as shall be determined by the board of directors. Any call made by the board of directors for payment on subscriptions shall be uniform as to all shares of the same class or as to all shares of the same series. In case of default in the payment of any installment or call when such payment is due, the corporation may proceed to collect the amount due in the same manner as any debt due the corporation.

 

ARTICLE VII

 

GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

Section 1 Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the corporation, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be declared by the board of directors at any regular or special meeting, pursuant to law. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the corporation, or any other purpose and the directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.

 

Section 2 Checks, Drafts or Orders. All checks, drafts, or other orders for the payment of money by or to the corporation and all notes and other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of the corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers, agent or agents of the corporation, and in such manner, as shall be determined by resolution of the board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof.

 

12 

 

 

Section 3 Contracts. The board of directors may authorize any officer or officers, or any agent or agents, of the corporation to enter into any contract or to execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf of the corporation, and such authority may be general or confined to specific instances.

 

Section 4 Loans. The corporation may lend money to, or guarantee any obligation of, or otherwise assist any officer or other employee of the corporation or of its subsidiary, including any officer or employee who is a director of the corporation or its subsidiary, whenever, in the judgment of the directors, such loan, guaranty or assistance may reasonably be expected to benefit the corporation. The loan, guaranty or other assistance may be with or without interest, and may be unsecured, or secured in such manner as the board of directors shall approve, including, without limitation, a pledge of shares of stock of the corporation. Nothing in this section contained shall be deemed to deny, limit or restrict the powers of guaranty or warranty of the corporation at common law or under any statute.

 

Section 5 Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the board of directors.

 

Section 6 Corporate Seal. The board of directors may provide a corporate seal which shall be in the form of a circle and shall have inscribed thereon the name of the corporation and the words “Corporate Seal, Delaware”. The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

 

Section 7 Voting Securities Owned By Corporation. Voting securities in any other corporation held by the corporation shall be voted by the chief executive officer, unless the board of directors specifically confers authority to vote with respect thereto, which authority may be general or confined to specific instances, upon some other person or officer. Any person authorized to vote securities shall have the power to appoint proxies, with general power of substitution.

 

Section 8 Inspection of Books and Records. Any stockholder of record, in person or by attorney or other agent, shall, upon written demand under oath stating the purpose thereof, have the right during the usual hours for business to inspect for any proper purpose the corporation’s stock ledger, a list of its stockholders, and its other books and records, and to make copies or extracts therefrom. A proper purpose shall mean any purpose reasonably related to such person’s interest as a stockholder. In every instance where an attorney or other agent shall be the person who seeks the right to inspection, the demand under oath shall be accompanied by a power of attorney or such other writing which authorizes the attorney or other agent to so act on behalf of the stockholder. The demand under oath shall be directed to the corporation at its registered office in the State of Delaware or at its principal place of business.

 

Section 9 Section Headings. Section headings in these by-laws are for convenience of reference only and shall not be given any substantive effect in limiting or otherwise construing any provision herein.

 

Section 10 Inconsistent Provisions. In the event that any provision of these by-laws is or becomes inconsistent with any provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or any other applicable law, the provision of these by-laws shall not be given any effect to the extent of such inconsistency but shall otherwise be given full force and effect.

 

13 

 

 

 

ARTICLE VIII

 

AMENDMENTS

 

These by-laws may be amended, altered, or repealed and new by-laws adopted at any meeting of the board of directors by a majority vote. The fact that the power to adopt, amend, alter, or repeal the by-laws has been conferred upon the board of directors shall not divest the stockholders of the same powers.

 

14